DOI: 10.17072/2078-7898/2017-2-164-171


Kolesnikov Ilya Dmitrievich
Ph.D. Student of the Department of Theoretical
and Social Philosophy

Saratov State University,
83, Astrakhanskaya str., Saratov, 410012, Russia;
ORCID: 0000-0002-2729-6871

The article seeks to research one of Heraclitus’ ideas, namely the «unity of all» (ἓν το πάν). This idea is usually regarded as obvious, and therefore not demanding detailed research. In place of this idea’s content researchers frequently consider its ethical effects, namely stoicism. Even if researchers keep the metaphysical level of the «unity of all» idea, they connect it with pantheism of German Romanticists, namely, Schelling’s «identity philosophy». The aim of the article is to clarify the idea of the «unity of all» in connection with Friedrich Nietzsche’s philosophy. The main method of studying Heraclitus’s poem «Περί Φύσεως» is hermeneutics, which, unlike other methods, considers integrity of Heraclitus’ idea. As a result of the research, stoicism and pantheism are recognized as not sufficient ways to understand Heraclitus’ idea of the «unity of all». Therefore, it is necessary to refer to Nietzsche’s philosophical heritage. For this purpose the seventy-fifth fragment of Heraclitus’ poem was taken as a basis for consideration («Those who are asleep are fellow-workers in what goes on in the world»), and after that the fifty-second fragment was considered («Time is a child at play, moving pieces in a board game; the kingly power is a child’s»). From the author’s point of view, the «unity of all» is not an optimistic teleology but a result of aesthetic contemplation.

Keywords: Heraclitus, ἓν το πάν, Naturphilosophie, Ancient Greek philosophy, stoicism, pantheism, German Romanticism, Nietzsche.


  1. Diels H. Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker: in 3 Bde. Bd. I [Fragments of the Pre-Socratics in 3 vol., vol. 1]. Berlin, Weidmannsche Buchhandlung Publ., 1906, 466 p. (In German).
  2. Lebedev A.V. Logos Geraklita: rekonstruktsiya mysli i slova [Logos of Heraclitus: Reconstruction of Thought and Word]. Saint Petersburg, Nauka Publ., 2014, 533 p. (In Russian).
  3. Diogenes Laërtius. O zhizni, ucheniyakh i izrecheniyakh znamenitykh filosofov / per. M.L. Gasparova [Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers. Trans. by M.L. Gasparov]. Moscow, Mysl’ Publ., 1986, 571 p. (In Russian).
  4. Heraclitus of Ephesus. Vse nasledie / per. S.N. Murav’eva [All Heritage. Trans. by S.N. Muraviev]. Moscow, Ad Marginem Publ., 2012, 347 p. (In Russian).
  5. Jaeger W. Paydeyya. Vospitanie antichnogo greka. T. 1 / per. A.I. Lubzhina [Paideia: The Ideals of Greek Culture. Vol. 1. Trans. by A.I. Lubzhin]. Moscow, Greko-latinskiy kabinet Yu.A. Shichalina Publ., 2001, 593 p. (In Russian).
  6. Seneca the Younger. Nravstvennye pisma k Lutsiliyu / per. S.A. Osherova [Moral Letters to Lucilius Trans. by S.A. Osherov]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1977, 383 p. (In Russian).
  7. Fragmenty rannikh stoikov. T. 2, ch. 2 / per. i komment. A.A. Stolyarova [Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta. Vol. 2, pt. 2. Trans. & comm. byA.A. Stolyarov]. Moscow, Greko-latinskiy kabinet Yu.A. Shichalina Publ., 2002, 272 p. (In Russian).
  8. Jacobi F.H. Werke. Gesamtausgabe: in 7 Bde. Bd. I [Works: Complete edition in 7 vol. Vol. 1]. Hamburg, Meiner Publ., 1998, p16
  9. Fragmenty rannikh grecheskikh filosofov / pod red. Dilsa–Kranza [Fragments of the Pre-Socratics. Ed. by Diels–Kranz]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1989, 576 p. (In Russian).
  10. Nietzsche F. Polnoe sobranie sochineniy: v 13 t. T. 4: Tak govoril Zaratustra [Complete Works in 13 vol. Vol. 4: Thus Spoke Zarathustra]. Moscow, Kulturnaya Revolyutsiya Publ., 2007, 432 p. (In Russian).
  11. Nietzsche F. Polnoe sobranie sochineniy: v 13 t. T. 1.1: Rozhdenie tragedii. Iz naslediya (sochineniya 1869–1873 gg.) [Complete Works: in 13 vol. Vol. 1.1: The Birth of Tragedy. From the heritage (works of 1869–1873)]. Moscow, Kulturnaya revolyutsiya Publ., 2012, 408 p. (In Russian).
  12. Pindar, Bacchylides. Ody, fragmenty / per. M.L. Gasparova [Odes, Fragments. Trans. by M.L. Gasparov]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1980, 503 p. (In Russian).
  13. Nietzsche F. Polnoe sobranie sochineniy: v 13 t. T. 3: Utrennaya zarya. Messinskiye idillii. Veselaya nauka [Complete Works: in 13 vol. Vol. 3: The Dawn. Idylls from Messina. The Gay Science]. Moscow, Kulturnaya revolyutsiya Publ., 2014, 640 p. (In Russian).
  14. Nietzsche F. Polnoe sobranie sochineniy: v 13 t. T. 11: Chernoviki i nabroski 1884–1885 gg. [Complete Works: in 13 vol. Vol. 11: Drafts and sketches 1884–1885]. Moscow, Kulturnaya Revolyutsiya Publ., 2012, 688 p. (In Russian).

The date of the manuscript receipt 31.01.2017

Please cite this article in English as:

Kolesnikov I.D. «Ἓν το πν» of Heraclitus: from stoicism to Nietzsche // Perm University Herald. Series «Philosophy. Psychology. Sociology». 2017. Iss. 2. P.164171. DOI: 10.17072/2078-7898/2017-2-164-171

Узнайте как убрать вы здесь в Joomla